Specialty Finishes and Coatings for textiles
The term “Nano” in nano technology comes from a Greek word “Nanos” which means “Dwarf” i.e. abnormally small. One nanometer is one billionth of a meter or 10-9 meter. Nanotechnology can be considered as a technology of design, fabrication and application of nanostructure and nanomaterials. Material in nanometer scale may exhibit physical properties distinctively different from their bulk counterpart. Different fabrication and processing techniques for nanomaterial includes top down and bottom up approach, spontaneous and forced process.
Nanotechnology has real commercial potential for the textile industry. This is mainly due to the fact that conventional methods used to impart different properties to fabrics often do not lead to permanent effects, and will lose their functions after laundering or wearing. Nanotechnology can provide high durability for fabrics, because nano-particles have a large surface area-to-volume ratio and high surface energy, thus presenting better affinity for fabrics and leading to an increase in durability of the function. In addition, a coating of nano-particles on fabrics will not affect their breathability or hand feel.
The properties imparted to textiles using nanotechnology include water repellance, soil resistance, wrinkle resistance, anti-bacteria, anti-static and UV-protection, flame retardation, photocatalytic self cleaning, anti pollen and so on. These multifunctional properties are achieved through changing fabric at molecular level by nanotechnology process.
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